10  DICEMBRE 2017
 

Note

1. Il modello di riferimento per ogni forma di co-ownership è la “John Lewis Partnership”: un’azienda partecipata dai lavoratori (appunto, partners) che è diventata dalla fine dell’Ottocento un caso di successo economico e sociale in Inghilterra. Tramite i suoi 84.700 lavoratori-proprietari detiene le catene di supermercati Waitrose, i negozi John Lewis e diverse imprese di produzione. La partnership ha un business che si aggira tra i 7 e i 9,5 miliardi di sterline negli ultimi cinque anni e la metà dei profitti viene divisa tra i lavoratori. Nella Mutual Taskforce è presente Patrick Lewis, un membro del board della “John Lewis Partnership”.

2. I PCT erano organismi amministrativi del servizio sanitario nazionale inglese che avevano la responsabilità di fornire assistenza sanitaria e azioni per la salute alle comunità locali. Essi commissionavano o fornivano direttamente una gamma di servizi di assistenza sanitaria. I PCT hanno gestito l’80% del bilancio totale del NHS, sino alla data della loro abolizione, il 31 marzo 2013.

3. La Mutuals Taskforce è stata creata nel 2011 con l’obiettivo di coinvolgere, stimolare e promuovere il lavoro del Governo per sostenere la creazione e lo sviluppo delle mutue di servizio pubblico. Per fare questo, la Taskforce comprende leader con esperienza e competenza nel campo accademico, mutualistico, di consulenza.

4. Un’altra forma emergente di commissioning che si sta affermando in Inghilterra è basata su meccanismi cooperativi (Shafique, 2013), dando priorità al valore sociale, piuttosto che ai costi, ponendo i cittadini e la co-produzione al centro del commissioning, investendo negli outcomes.

5. Alcuni buoni esempi sono riportati nelle Schede 1 e 2, altri si possono trovare in Burnell (Burnell, 2013) e Elliot (Elliot, 2013). Materiale interessante con interviste e approfondimenti su casi di mutualizzazione si trova nel sito del Transition Institute (http://www.transitioninstitute.org.uk).

6. Su 210 spin out attivi in Inghilterra e Scozia alla fine del 2012 - comprensivi anche dei leisure trusts (una politica di esternalizzazione degli anni ‘80) - una recente ricerca ha mostrato che il 45,3% non ha seguito nessun programma pubblico, il 28,3% il Right to Request, l’11,3 il Mutual Pathfinder, il 5,7% il Right to Provide (Hazenberg, 2013).

7. La ricerca con i dati più aggiornati sul fenomeno è di Hazenberg (Hazenberg ,2013): ha però come oggetto tutti gli spin out attivi in Inghilterra e Scozia, compresi i trust degli anni ‘80 e ‘90, allargando così a dismisura l’universo di riferimento, soprattutto per l’accesso al credito, le forme legali e il modello di business.

 

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Matteo Orlandini Università degli Studi di Bologna